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Explanation text dan pembahasan jawaban: Natural disaster (updated)

Berikut kami sajikan explanation text beserta pembahasan kunci jawaban. Contoh teks explanation di bawah ini kami ambil dari soal Ujian Nasional tingkat SMA / MA tahun akademik 2012. Pembahasan jawaban kami berikan per Juni tahun 2021, yang postingan sebelumnya hanya berisi kunci jawaban.
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A natural disaster is a terrible accident, e.g. a great flood, a big fire or an earthquake. It usually causes great suffering and loss of a large sum of money. The casualties are injured or died. Some people are homeless and need medical care.

Floods occur when the water of rivers, lakes, or streams overflow their banks and pour onto the surrounding land. Floods are caused by many different things. Often heavy rainstorms that last for a brief can cause a flood. But not all heavy storms are followed by flooding. If the surrounding land is flat and can absorb the water, no flooding will occur. If, however, the land is hard and rocky, heavy rain cannot be absorbed. Where the banks are low, a river may overflow and flood adjacent lowlands.

In many parts of the world, floods are caused by tropical storms called hurricanes or typhoons. They bring destructive winds of high speed, torrents of rain, and flooding. When a flood occurs, the destruction of the surrounding land can be severe. Whole villages and towns are sometimes swept away by water pouring swiftly over the land. Railroad tracks and buckles are blocked and uprooted from their beds. Highways are washed away.

When a building caught fire, the firemen pitched in to help battle the blaze. Before the pumps were invented, people formed bucket brigades to fight fires. Standing side by side, they formed a human chain from the fire to a nearby well or river. They passed buckets of water from hand to hand to be poured on the flames.

The damage of the fire did depend a great deal on where it happened. In the country or a small village, only a single house might burn down. But in crowded cities, fire often destroyed whole blocks and neighborhoods before being controlled.

1. What can possibly prevent rivers and lakes from overflowing?
A. An absorbent bed.
B. A rocky surrounding.
C. A low land.
D. A high bank.
E. A high road.

Jawaban nomor 1 ada di paragraf 1 baris akhir: 'Where the banks are low, a river may overflow and flood adjacent lowlands'. 'Bank' dalam konteks ini pinggiran/tepi sungai yang menahan air. Itu berarti jawaban yang tepat ialah D (a high bank).


2. We know from the text that . . . .
A. River can sweep heavy flood.
B. People can make money from flood.
C. The destruction by flood is always less severe.
D. Water flood is absorbed by land directly.
E. Typhoons caused heavy flood.

Jawaban nomor 2 yang paling memungkinkan ialah E (Typhoons caused heavy flood), sebagaimana dikatakan di paragraf 3 'In many parts of the world, floods are caused by tropical storms called hurricanes or typhoons'. Untuk pilihan D, pada dasaranya ada sedikit benarnya yaitu land bisa menyerap (absorb) air banjir, tapi tentunya tidak langsung (indirectly) terserap (butuh proses), dan juga ada syaratnya yaitu land nya harus yang tidak keras (If, however, the land is hard and rocky, heavy rain cannot be absorbed).


3. We know from the text that . . . .
A. the pump is the only tool used by fire fighters now.
B. the pump helps people to fight fires more efficiently.
C. fires in big cities are always very big.
D. people no longer use buckets to control fire.
E. only firemen can control fires in crowded cities.

Jawaban nomor 3 disebutkan diparagraf 3 bahwa 'Before the pumps were invented, .... They passed buckets of water from hand to hand to be poured on the flames'. Hal ini menandakan orang dulu menggunakan buckets (ember) untuk mengatasi kebakaran. Yang berarti jawaban D (people no longer use buckets to control fire) bisa dibenarkan.
  • Pilihan A bisa disalahkan karena tidak disebutkan bahwa pump (pompa air) satu-satunya alat yang digunakan pemadam kebakaraan saat ini. Di bacaan memang disampaikan bahwa pompa juga menjadi salah satu alat pemadam kebakaran saat ini, tapi tidak disebutkan bahwa itu satu-satunya, yang berarti kemungkinan masih ada alat lain yang digunakan.
  • Pilihan B tidak dibahas dibacaan.
  • Pilihan C tidak disebutkan bahwa selalu (always). Di bacaan hanya disampaikan bahwa kejadiannya sering (often), bukan selalu. Kata `always` menandakan pasti terjadi atau 100% terjadi, kalau `often` persentasenya 50% lebih.
  • Pilihan D tidak dibahas di bacaan.

3 komentar untuk "Explanation text dan pembahasan jawaban: Natural disaster (updated)"

  1. Makasih contoh soalnya gan, buat ane pelajarin soalnya mau ulangan. . . sekali lagi makasih ya

    BalasHapus
  2. bank di situ artinya apa si gan, jelaskan dong

    BalasHapus
  3. Bank artinya pinggiran sungai. Tanah penghalang air (pinggiran sungai).

    BalasHapus