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Analytical Exposition VS Hortatory Exposition

Sebagian siswa masih menemukan Analytical Exposition dan Hortatory Exposition sulit dibedakan. Mudah kok ^_^.

Kedua teks tersebut masuk dalam kategori persuasive text. Persuasive text merupakan teks yang bertujuan untuk mempengaruhi seseorang akan ide yang penulis utarakan -baik untuk mengubah pandangan seseorang sesuai pandangan si penulis terkait suatu kasus tertentu maupun untuk mencari pendukung akan ide yang diutarakan si penulis.

Untuk perbedaannya yang jelas dan tidak sulit dipahamai yaitu terletak pada generic structure ke dua teks tersebut. Perhatikan:

Analytical exposition (lihat penjelasan lengkapnya di sini):
  1. Thesis
  2. Argument
  3. Conclusion/Reiteration
Hortatory Exposition (lihat penjelasan lengkapnya di sini):
  1. Thesis
  2. Argument
  3. Recommendation
Perhatikan bagian poin ke tiga, jika analytical exposition pada paragraf terakhirnya berisikan kesimpulan atau pernyataan ulang atas inti dari ide yang disampaikan, maka hortatory exposition berisikan rekomendasi untuk pembaca. Yang penting diperhatikan yaitu penggunaan ciri kata yang sering digunkan dalam memberikan rekomendasi atau saran: should, should not, ought to, ought not to. Lihat contoh di bawah:

Contoh Analytical Exposition Text: (Perhatikan kalimat bagian terakhir diwarnai merah, kalimat tersebut merupakan pernyataan ulang dari yang diutrakan penuis di paragraf pertama)

Public Transportation should be Free

If we can agree that government has some role to play in our lives, then let’s at least make it a positive one. Consider the benefits of free, fully-subsidized public transportation.

First, it will motivate more people to leave their cars at home. Think of the reduction in pollution and traffic jam and insurance costs due to accidents. Greener cities, safer cities, more livable cities. More room for parks and trees. Think of the money we’ll all save by consuming less gas, spending less frequently on car repairs, and so on. That money will stay in our wallets and we could then turn around and give the economy a boost by spending it on other consumer goods or services. More jobs.

Secondly, we must consider the health benefits. We’ll all walk a little more. This will reduce visits to doctors’ offices and hospitals because we’ll be healthier. We’ll have improved blood pressure, lower stress and possibly a better complexion.

In addition, free transportation will encourage us to enjoy the company of our friends and family. It will become much more feasible to safely drink another glass of wine at the restaurant or have that extra beer at the family gathering. We’ll avoid the worry of getting behind the wheel with a blood-alcohol level that’s above the legal limit. Fewer accidents, fewer tragedies, lower costs of policing and reduced court backlogs. The increased public expense in transportation should pay off in the form of reduced health care costs and a safer society.

Then, think about some of the other social benefits: imagine how much we’ll learn from each other when we share rides instead of sitting in isolation in our cars. Talking to the neighbors might come back into fashion. More people will meet and talk and maybe even help each other.

Having someone else drive us will also give us more time for reading books and newspapers. So, park your car and use it for your dream vacation.

No more fumbling for change, just hop on and off the streetcar or bus wherever and whenever you like. What a great idea, especially for those who live in crowded, polluted cities. It will renew life on our streets.

So I can’t agree more with this proposition. Let’s go for it!

Contoh Hortatory Exposition: (perhatikan kalimat bagian terakhir di warnai merah terdapat kata SHOULD ---> rekomendasi.

Organic Farming
A Solution for Harmless Food

Organic farming is a form of agriculture which excludes the use of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides, plant growth regulators, live-stock feed additives, and genetically modified organisms. It is believed that organic farming should replace conventional one for some reasons.

Firstly, as far as possible, organic farmers rely on crop rotation, integrated pest management, crop residue, compost and mechanical cultivation to maintain soil productivity and control pests.

Secondly, studies have shown that people who work with pesticides have an increased risk of developing Parkinson’s disease. The pesticides examined in these two long-term studies, paraquat and dieldrin, are not allowed on organic farms. The herbicide paraquat and fungicide maneb together, but not alone, have been shown to cause brain damage in mice. Some organic farming standards do allow the use of natural methods of protection from pests such as those derived from plants. Organic activists state that natural pesticides are a last alternative, while growing healthier, disease-resistant plants, using cover crops and crop rotation, and encouraging beneficial insects and birds are the primary methods of pest control.

Finally, a 2001 study demonstrated that children who are fed organic diets experienced significantly lower organophosphorus pesticide exposure than children fed conventional diets. A similar study in 2006 measured the levels of organophosphorus pesticide exposure in 23 pre-school children before and after replacing their diet with organic food: levels of organophosphorus pesticide exposure dropped dramatically and immediately when the children switched to an organic diet. Although the researchers did not collect health outcome data in this study, they concluded “it assumes that children whose diets consist of organic food items would have a lower probability of neurologic health risks.”

Therefore, organic farming should replace conventional one to reduce the using of pesticides which usually remain in farm production such as fruits and vegetables since there are a lot of research which prove that pesticides may be harmful for the consumers if people use pesticides improperly.
Muhammad Ahkam Arifin
Muhammad Ahkam Arifin Muhammad Ahkam Arifin is a Fulbright PhD student at Washington State University, US. He earned a master`s degree in TESOL from the University of Edinburgh & Applied Linguistics from the University of Melbourne.

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