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Belajar Structure / Grammar TOEFL 12: Adjective Clause (Part 2)

Skill 12: Adjective clause pola C/S V

Di materi sebelumnya (Skill 11: adjective clause pola C S V) kita sudah belajar tentang adjective clause yang berpola Connector + Subject + Verb (C S V). Saat ini kita akan pelajari pola lainnya yaitu Connector/Subject + Verb (C/S V). Bedanya ialah kalau yang pertama itu Connector berbeda dengan Subject, sementara yang ke dua `bisa` dikatakan bahwa Connector sudah sekaligus berperan sebagai Subject.

Contoh:

  1. The woman that you met yesterday is my sister. [C S V - pola pertama]
  2. The woman that talked to you yesterday is my sister. [C/S V - pola ke dua]
  3. The woman that she talked to you yesterday is my sister. [tidak boleh ada `she` karena kembali ke woman - double subject]
Perhatikan bahwa subject adjective clause `you` di kalimat pertama itu berbeda dengan subject dari kalimat inti `the woman`, sementara di kalima ke tiga subject `she` sama dengan subject kalimat inti `the woman`, olehnya tidak perlu lagi dituliskan, karena bisa dikatakan `double subject`. 

Nah, penting untuk diketahui bahwa baik pola 1 maupun pola 2 sama-sama menggunakan connector `that` dan `which`; sementara, perbedaaanya ialah untuk pola 1 menggunakan `whom` sementara pola 2 menggunakan `who`. Contoh:

  1. The book that/which you bought yesterday was very expensive. [C S V - pola pertama]
  2. The book that/which was on sale yesterday was very expensive. [C/S V - pola ke dua]
  3. I`ll meet the student whom/that you talked about. [C S V - pola pertama]
  4. I`ll meet the student who you talked about. (x) [tidak formal]
  5. I`ll meet the student who/that won the competition. [C/S V - pola ke dua]
  6. I`ll meet the student whom won the competition. (x)
Note. Yellow = Adjective Clause. Selebihnya merupakan clause inti (main clause).

Contoh 1 dan 2 memperlihatkan bahwa `that` atau `which` untuk `noun thing` sama-sama bisa digunakan di ke 2 pola. Sementara di contoh ke 4 dan 6 untuk `noun person` di pola 1 [C S V] menggunakan `whom`, dan di pola 2 [C/SV] menggunakan `who`. Pada dasarnya kalimat 4 bisa dibenarkan, hanya saja `who` dalam konteks ini digunakan di konteks speaking [informal], sementara soal TOEFL itu masuk kategori akademik/formal. 

Contoh lainnya untuk adjective clause pola [C/S V]

  1. The letter which was written last week arrived today. 
  2. The letter which it was written last week arrived today. (x)
  3. The pitcher that is on the table is full of iced tea. 
  4. The pitcher that it is on the table is full of iced tea. (x)
  5. I don’t understand the article which appears in today`s paper
  6. I don’t understand the article which it appears in today`s paper. (x)
  7. The male student who sat an exam was having difficulties.
  8. The male student that sat an exam was having difficulties.
  9. The male student who he sat an exam was having difficulties. (x)
  10. The male student whom sat an exam was having difficulties. (x)
Contoh 2, 4, 6, dan 9 salah karena semuanya `double subject`. Contoh 10 salah karena menggunakan connector `whom`, sementara `whom` hanya digunakan u/ pola [C S V]. Kalimat 8 memperlihatkan bahwa `that` bisa digunakan untuk `noun thing` dan `noun person`.

Contoh soal adjective clause [C/S V]

  1. _________ is on the table belongs to John.
    (A) The notebook
    (B) The notebook which
    (C) Because the notebook
    (D) Because in the notebook 
  2. The car, which was purchased yesterday, it was very expensive. [correct/incorrect]
  3. The football player who moving to another club is due to the higher salary. [correct/incorrect]
  4. The police officer will come to my house has confirmed me in advance. [correct/incorrect]
  5. The animal that it was taken out from the car is my favorite cat. [correct/incorrect]

Pembahasan jawaban 

  1. The notebook which is on the table belongs to John.
    Di soal, ada 2 verb yang berarti minimal butuh 1 connector. Ini berarti pilihan A sudah past salah. Untuk pilihan C dan D, connector `because` itu adalah u/ adverb clause yang berpola `CSV, SV`. Olehnya, jawaban yang benar adalah B.

  2. The car, which was purchased yesterday, it was very expensive. [incorrect]
    Kesalahan: Double subject u/ clause inti. 
  3. The football player who moving is moving/moved to another club is due to the higher salary. [incorrect]
    Kesalahan: Adjective clause kehilangan Verb.
  4. The police officer who will come to my house has confirmed me in advance. [incorrect]
    Kesalahan: Kehilangan connector u/ adjective clause.
  5. The animal that it was taken out from the car is my favorite cat. [incorrect]
    Kesalahan: Double subject u/ adjective clause. That dan it sama2 mengarah ke `the animal`. 

Soal latihan untuk materi adjective clause:

Silahkan dikerjakan soal berikut dengan menentukan apakah benar (correct) atau salah (incorrect).

1. The ice cream that is served in the restaurant has a smooth, creamy texture
2. The cars are trying to enter the freeway system are lined up for blocks.
3. I have great respect for everyone who on the Dean's List.
4. It is going to be very difficult to work with the man which just began working here.
5. The door that leads to the vault it was tightly locked.
6. The neighbors reported the man who was trying to break into the car to the police.
7. These plants can only survive in an environment is extremely humid.
8. The boss meets with any production workers who they have surpassed their quotas.
9. The salesclerk ran after the woman who had left her credit card in the store. 
10. The shoes which matched the dress that was on sale.

Pembahasan jawaban:

  1. Correct
  2. incorrect - kekurangan connector
    The cars that are trying to enter the freeway system are lined up for blocks.
  3. incorrect - kekurangan Verb u/ adjective clause
    I have great respect for everyone who is on the Dean's List.
  4. incorrect - salah pemilihan connector 
    It is going to be very difficult to work with the man which who just began working here.
  5. corrrect
  6. correct
  7. incorrect - kehilangan connector
    These plants can only survive in an environment that/which is extremely humid. (bisa pakai `which` atau `that`)
  8. incorrect - double subject u/ adjective clause
    The boss meets with any production workers who they have surpassed their quotas.
  9. correct
  10. incorrect - missing Verb u/ main clause
    The shoes which matched the dress that was on sale [butuh verb di sini].

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